Chicken or Egg? – Causality in Complex Systems

What came first, the chicken or the egg? This is a common thought experiment (and actual scientific question) that represents a paradox of causality. This is a good example of linear causality, a hallmark of Western philosophical and scientific thought. This is the basis for reductionism, whereby a complex system is reduced systematically to its component parts, and each part is evaluated for its contribution to the whole. However, issues arise when examining a complex system.

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